Body Dysmorphic Disorder Date created: 2022-11-22

Diagnostic features

Prevalence, comorbidity, and natural course

Individuals with BDD have a markedly poor quality of life, even when compared to other psychiatric disorders such as depression: Phillips2005 - Psychosocial functioning and quality of life in body dysmorphic disorder

Etiology and maintenance of symptoms


Monzani2014 - The Structure of Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Dimensional Representations of DSM-5 Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders


Environmental risk factors

Psychological explanations

Network theory

Bernstein2021 - Mechanisms of cognitive-behavioral therapy effects on symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, a network intervention analysis

Treatment of BDD

Pharmacological treatments

Psychological treatments


App and VR treatment

BDD smartphone app peer review

In a randomized controlled trial, app-based CBT for BDD outperformed waitlist control with a large effect size (d = 1.44): Wilhelm2022 - Efficacy of App-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder with Coach Support, Initial Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Combination treatments

Current issues in the treatment of BDD