Swedish data, here is the link



Health care contacts before suicide


Suicidal ideation and planning

Costs and resource use

EMA findings



Reviews & meta-analyses

  • NICE guidelines to reduce self-harm repetition: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng225
  • Big meta-analysis of 50 years of research, 1125 RCTS fox2020
  • Broad-scope review of the psychology of suicide oconnor2014
    • Good overview of psychological theories and psychological factors in suicidal ideation and behavior
  • Psychosocial interventions following self-harm in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis hawton2016
  • Strategies to prevent death by suicide: Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials riblet2017
  • Interventions to prevent repeat suicidal behavior in patients admitted to an emergency department for a suicide attempt: A meta-analysis inagaki2015
  • Suicide prevention strategies revisited: 10-year systematic review zalsman2016
  • Practitioner Review by Asarnow & Mehlum of the treatment of youth with NSSI and suicidal behavior. DBT is the only treatment with two independent RCTs asarnow2019

Brief suicide prevention interventions


  • stanley2009 is the first report with lots of details on the structure. However no efficacy results in there.





Primary studies



  • A zero-suicide vision is harmful because we have a poor understanding of who will commit suicide, and our prevention efforts risk harming individuals if we tolerate zero suicides sjostrand2023

Psychological theories of suicide


The development of suicidal ideation and the transition from suicide ideation to attempts are distinct processes with distinct predictors and explanations klonsky2021

Suicide risk exists on a continuum from relatively low risk (desire for death) to higher risk (concrete plans).

  • Beck’s hopelesness theory. Hopelessness is fairly stable over time and ultimately leads an individual to believe that suicide is a viable strategy to deal with untenable cicrumstances.
  • Joiner’s interpersonal theory. Perceptions of burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness are fairly stable over time and ultimately lead an individual to consider suicide as a means of resolving their situation.

Klonsky & May’s Three-step theory

In brief, the 3ST suggests that: a) suicidal ideation is caused by the combination of unbearable pain (usually psychological) and hopelessness, b) suicidal ideation is strong when one’s pain exceeds or overwhelms one’s connectedness (to valued people, communities, or sources of purpose and meaning), and c) transition from strong suicidal ideation to potentially lethal suicide attempts is facilitated by dispositional, acquired and practical contributors to capability for suicide. Thus, the 3ST is a concise theory that explains suicide in terms of just four variables: pain, hopelessness, connectedness, and suicide capability.

Multiple pathways, non-linear

  • Fluid Vulnerability Theory. Suicidal ideation fluctuates close to a baseline with episodic peaks representing suicidal crises.
  • Baca-Garcia Multiple Pathways