Kroenke2001 - The PHQ-9, validity of a brief depression severity measure

Example citation

The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9; [@kroenke2001]) is a self-rated questionnaire asks the patient to rate each of the 9 DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder on a scale from 0 “not at all” to 3 “nearly every day” during the last week, yielding a total score of 0 to 27.

A cut-off of ≥10 points distinguishes patients with major depressive disorder with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 88%. The PHQ-9 has excellent internal validity (Cronbach’s = 0.89) [@kroenke2001].

… (recovery score 10 or lower)

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