• Bibtex: @nock2009
  • Bibliography: Nock, M. K., Prinstein, M. J., & Sterba, S. K. (2009). Revealing the form and function of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors: A real-time ecological assessment study among adolescents and young adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(4), 816–827. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016948

Example citation

Nonsuicidal self injury was often negatively reinforced and used as a method to escape anxeity, anger or sadness

Key takeaways

  • n = 30 adolescents and young adults
  • 14-day EMA period with two measurements per day
  • Average 5 thoughts of NSSI per week, 1.6 episodes of NSSI per week.
  • Self-destructive behaviors: suicide attempt, NSSI, alcohol use, substance use, bingeing, purging, unsafe sex, impulsive spending, etc.
  • Function of NSSI was most often negative reinforcement to escape anxiety/sadness/anger.
    • Intrapersonal-negative reinforcement (65%)
    • Intrapersonal-positive (25%)
    • Interpersonal-negative (15%)
    • Interpersonal-positive (4%)