Risk of death by suicide following self-harm presentations to healthcare: development and validation of a multivariable clinical prediction rule (OxSATS)

  • Type :#article
  • Date read: 2023-07-10
  • Bibtex: @fazel2023
  • Bibliography: Fazel, S., Vazquez-Montes, M. D. L. A., Molero, Y., Runeson, B., D’Onofrio, B. M., Larsson, H., Lichtenstein, P., Walker, J., Sharpe, M., & Fanshawe, T. R. (2023). Risk of death by suicide following self-harm presentations to healthcare: Development and validation of a multivariable clinical prediction rule (OxSATS). BMJ Ment Health, 26(1). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjment-2023-300673

Example citation

My notes


Background Assessment of suicide risk in individuals who have self-harmed is common in emergency departments, but is often based on tools developed for other purposes. Objective We developed and validated a predictive model for suicide following self-harm. Methods We used data from Swedish population-based registers. A cohort of 53 172 individuals aged 10+ years, with healthcare episodes of self-harm, was split into development (37 523 individuals, of whom 391 died from suicide within 12 months) and validation (15 649 individuals, 178 suicides within 12 months) samples. We fitted a multivariable accelerated failure time model for the association between risk factors and time to suicide. The final model contains 11 factors: age, sex, and variables related to substance misuse, mental health and treatment, and history of self-harm. Transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis guidelines were followed for the design and reporting of this work. Findings An 11-item risk model to predict suicide was developed using sociodemographic and clinical risk factors, and showed good discrimination (c-index 0.77, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.78) and calibration in external validation. For risk of suicide within 12 months, using a 1% cut-off, sensitivity was 82% (75% to 87%) and specificity was 54% (53% to 55%). A web-based risk calculator is available (Oxford Suicide Assessment Tool for Self-harm or OxSATS). Conclusions OxSATS accurately predicts 12-month risk of suicide. Further validations and linkage to effective interventions are required to examine clinical utility. Clinical implications Using a clinical prediction score may assist clinical decision-making and resource allocation. PDF: fazel_2023_risk_of_death_by_suicide_following_self-harm_presentations_to_healthcare_-.pdf