Example citation

India and China alone account for 42% of all suicide deaths

My notes

  • They say “attempting to predict suicide is unlikely to be helpful”
  • India and China alone account for 42% of all suicide deaths

Suicide and self-harm are complex and never the result of a single cause. Many of the risk factors are non-specific and apply to suicide, self-harm, and psychological distress.

  • Suicidal thoughts is among the non-specific risk factors, so we need to study what increases the likelihood of transition from thoughts to behavior.
  • They say the evidence base for digital treatments is small
  • One approach in low-income settings is to utilize community health workers (e.g., StrongMinds). They can reach patients in homes, health-care centers, places of worship and community centers.

In both males and females, high income and low income countries, the number of suicides per 100.000 individuals rises with age. Why is that?

  • Physical illnesses more common


Suicide and self-harm are major health and societal issues worldwide, but the greatest burden of both behaviours occurs in low-income and middle-income countries. Although rates of suicide are higher in male than in female individuals, self-harm is more common in female individuals. Rather than having a single cause, suicide and self-harm are the result of a complex interplay of several factors that occur throughout the life course, and vary by gender, age, ethnicity, and geography. Several clinical and public health interventions show promise, although our understanding of their effectiveness has largely originated from high-income countries. Attempting to predict suicide is unlikely to be helpful. Intervention and prevention must include both a clinical and community focus, and every health professional has a crucial part to play. PDF: knipe_2022_suicide_and_self-harm2.pdf